A security measure whereby a laptop is kept entirely offline, separate from other local networks and the internet



Covert security vulnerabilities that allow a system’s known security mechanisms to be bypassed, allowing undetectable access to the computer or its data





Basic Input/Output System - a set of computer instructions in firmware that control input and output operations


Bridges (Tor)

Bridges are Tor relays (nodes or computer points that receive traffic on the Tor network and pass it along) that help circumvent censorship






A mass surveillance system operated through programs that sift through and collect the world’s online and telecommunication data


Faraday cage

A metallic enclosure that prevents the entry or escape of an electromagnetic field



Software programmed onto hardware that provides instructions for how the device communicates with the other computer hardware (includes BIOS)



The physical elements that comprise a computer system



Malicious software, typically spyware, designed to disrupt or damage a computer system


Man-in-the-middle attack

The covert interception of communications by the impersonation of a target



Data about data



Programming that "glues together"/mediates between two separate and often already existing programs: e.g. allows programs to access databases


Open source

Freely distributed software for which the source code is publicly available


Operating system

The software that takes control of the computer as it boots up, tells the computer what to do and how to do it, and is the interface through which you use the computer


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